As per All India Survey 2018, Better Employment Opportunities (46.80%), Better Health Care (34.60%) and Drinking Water (30.50%) are the top three voters’ priorities at the all India level, followed by Better Roads (28.34%) and Better Public Transport (27.35%) at the fourth and the fifth place, respectively.
It is important to note that agricultural related governance issues featured predominantly in the all India top 10 voters’ priorities e.g. Availability of Water for Agriculture (26.40%) that was ranked sixth, Agriculture Loan Availability (25.62%) that was ranked seventh, Higher Price Realization for Farm Products (25.41%) that was ranked eighth, and Agriculture Subsidy for
Seeds/Fertilsers (25.06%) that was ranked ninth.
The performance of the government on the top most voters’ priority, Better Employment Opportunities was rated as below average (2.15 on a scale of 5), and ranked sixteenth at all India level.
The other top two voters’ priorities, Better Healthcare (2.35) and Drinking Water (2.52) were also rated as below average. Better Healthcare was ranked seventh and Drinking Water was ranked third. It is a matter of serious concern that for none of the 31 listed voters’ priorities, the performance of the government was rated as average or above average.
The worst performance of the government, as rated by the voters, was on the issues of Encroachment of Public Lands, Lakes etc., Terrorism, Training for Jobs, Strong Defence/Military, Eradication of Corruption, Lower Food Prices for Consumers and Mining/Quarrying. The comparative analysis between All India Mid-Term Survey 2017 and All India Survey 2018
reveals that the top two voters’ priorities (Better Employment Opportunities and Better. Hospitals/Primary Healthcare Centres) have continued to remain at the top.
The significance of Better Employment Opportunities as voter’s highest priority has increased by 56.67% from 30% in 2017 to 47% in 2018. At the same time, the performance of the government on this issue declined from 3.17 to 2.15 on a scale of 5. The significance of Better Hospitals/Primary Healthcare Centres as voter’s second highest priority has increased by 40% from 25% in 2017 to 35% in 2018. At the same time, the performance of the government on this issue declined from 3.36 to 2.35.
The significance of Drinking Water as voters’ priority has increased by 150% from 12% in 2017 to 30% in 2018. At the same time, the performance of the government on this issue declined from 2.79 to 2.52.
The significance of Better Roads as voter’s priority has increased by 100% from 14% in 2017 to 28% in 2018. At the same time, the performance of the government on this issue declined from 3.1 to 2.41.
Amongst the 32 states and UTs that were surveyed, in 29 of them, voters have given below average ratings to the government for its performance on all top 3 voters’ priorities at the state level. This is with the exception of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Puducherry.
Out of all the 8 Empowered Action Group (EAG) states, which are considered as most socio-economically backward, in 7 states (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh) Better Employment Opportunities is the foremost
voters’ priority. Drinking Water is the topmost voters’ priority in 3 States/UTs like Odisha, Karnataka and Daman and Diu.
Other states/UTs where Better Employment Opportunities is not the highest voters’ priority are Chandigarh (Water and Air Pollution), Delhi (Traffic Congestion), Meghalaya (Agriculture Subsidy for Seeds/Fertilisers) and Tripura (Agriculture Loan Availability). For both Male and Female voters, Better Employment Opportunities and Better Healthcare are
the top two priorities. It is interesting to see that Male voters have given the highest ratings (2.59) to the government on the issue of Empowerment of Women and Security, which despite being ranked first is a below average performance.
School Education is one of the highest priorities (ranked 13th) for both Male and Female voters; they have rated the performance of the government as extremely low (Male: 1.63 and Female:1.74). The other voters’ priorities on which the government has been ranked exceptionally low by both Male and Female voters are Eradication of Corruption, Lower food prices of consumers, Training for jobs, Terrorism, Strong Defence/Military and Encroachment of Public Land, Lakes etc.
As per All India Survey 2018, 98% of the voters reported that they voted in the last elections.
Out of the 2% who declined, a majority of them (38%) disclosed that their name was missing from the electoral roll. 31% of the voters mentioned that they were not registered with the Election Commission of India and 17% of the voters said that they could not vote because they were not in town.
In addition, the survey analysed the reasons for voters to vote for a candidate in an election. For 75.11% voters, CM candidate was the most important reason, followed by candidate’s party (71.32%) and the candidate (68.03%) himself/herself. It is distressing to see that for 41.34% voters, distribution of cash, liquor, gifts etc. was an important factor behind voting a particular candidate in an election. While deciding which candidate to vote for in an election, 84.14% Indian voters stated that their own opinion mattered the most. However, for 6.10% and 6.03% voters, opinion of their
Spouse and Family Members mattered the most in deciding the same, respectively.
In relation to voting candidates with criminal antecedents, maximum number of voters (36.67%) felt that people vote for such candidates because they are unaware of his/her criminal records. 35.89% voters are also willing to vote for a candidate with criminal records if the candidate
has done good work in the past. Caste and religious considerations are also key factors for 35.23% voters in choosing candidates with criminal records.
In the opinion of 34.75% voters, people vote for criminal candidates because they feel that the cases against such candidates are not of serious nature. Another huge factor in voting for criminal candidates was that the candidate has spent generously in elections (34.23%). A large number of voters, 72.97% knew that the distribution of cash, gifts etc. are illegal and 37.25% voters said that they were aware of instances where such inducements were offered to the voters in return for their votes.
Although, 97.86% voters felt that candidates with criminal background should not be in Parliament or State Assembly, only 35.20% voters knew that they could get information on criminal records of the candidates.
A significant percentage of voters (38.52%) reported that they were facing problems without Aadhaar card.