India is the largest democracy in the world. Peoples have all the fundamental rights and duties as well. Today we are celebrated CONSTITUTION DAY. Here we are sharing the heart of constitution i.e preamble.
The preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document, and it indicates the source from which the document derives its authority, meaning, the people.The hopes and aspirations of the people, as well as the ideals of our nation, are described in the preamble in clear words. It may be considered as the heart and soul of Constitution.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this 26th day of November 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
- The government has supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.
- The term socialist here means democratic socialism i.e. achievement of socialistic goals through democratic, evolutionary and non-violent means.Socialist basically means that wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society.
- Secular means the relationship between the government and the people which are determined according to constitution and law. Explaining the meaning of secularism as adopted by India, Alexander Owens has written, “Secularism is a part of the basic of the Indian Constitution and it means equal freedom and respect for all religions.
The people of India elect their governments at by a system of universal adult franchise; popularly known as “one man one vote”. Every citizen of India, 18 years of age and above and not otherwise debarred by law, is entitled to vote.The word ‘democratic’ not only refers to political but also to social & economic democracy.
In a republic form of government, the head of the state is an elected person and not a heredity monarch. This word denotes a government where no one holds a public power as proprietary right. As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on the hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne, a democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure.
Justice:- India seeks to secure social, economic and political justice for its people.
(i) Social Justice:
- Social Justice means the absence of socially privileged classes in the society and no discrimination against any citizen on grounds of caste, creed, colour, religion, sex or place of birth. India stands for eliminating all forms of exploitations from the society.
(ii) Economic Justice:
- Economic Justice means no discrimination between man and woman on the basis of income, wealth and economic status. It stands for equitable distribution of wealth, economic equality, end of monopolistic control over means of production and distribution, decentralisation of economic resources, and securing of adequate opportunities to all for earning their living.
(iii) Political Justice:
- Political Justice means equal, free and fair opportunities to the people for participation in the political process. It stands for the grant of equal political rights to all the people without any discrimination. The Constitution of India provides for a liberal democracy in which all the people have the right and freedom to participate.
The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities of Indian nationals. This establishes that there are no unreasonable restrictions on Indian citizens in term of what they think, their manner of expressions and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action. This is found to be an important tool in ensuring democratic framework. However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.This is the second provision.
This envisages that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination.All are equal in front of the law. Again, there are three dimensions of Equality – Political, Economic & Civic.
This refers to a feeling of brotherhood and a sense of belonging to the country among its people. It embraces psychological as well as territorial dimensions of National Integration. It leaves no room for regionalism, communalism, casteism etc, which hinders the Unity of the State.The inclusion of the word “Fraternity” is proposed by Dr B.R Ambedkar.