Operation Polo Makes Our Modern India

Operation Polo Makes Our Modern India

At the time of independence, India is not a nation. India is just a parts of princely states. For to make a nation it is mandatory that all princely states should participate with  Indian national government that believed in democracy or modern India. But British rural said them to princely states either they can join India or Pakistan or stay free from both of the nation. Sardar Patel now makes a policy to unite India i.e instrument of accession.Sardar Patel now makes a policy to unite India i.e instrument of accession. This instrument of accession and political strong will of Srdaar Patel makes our nation unite.

Unifying post-partition India & princely states under one administration was perhaps the most important task faced by the political leadership. In colonial India, nearly 40% of the territory was occupied by 565 small & large states ruled by princes who enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy under the system of British Paramountcy.

  • Many of 565 princely states began to dream of an independent state of their own after independence.
  • With great skill and masterful diplomacy & using both persuasion & pressure, Patel succeeded in integrating hundreds of princely states.
  • Most princely states joined Constituent Assembly with wisdom but others like of Junagarh, Kashmir, Manipur and Hyderabad publicly announced their desire to claim an independent status.
Nawab of junaghar


  • A small state on the coast of Saurashtra surrounded by Indian Territory
  • Had no link with Pakistan yet Nawab announced accession to Pak
  • But majority of the people (majorly Hindu), desired to join India
  • This led to a violent movement against Nawab along with Indian troops marching into the state
  • A plebiscite was held which favoured joining India
Raja harisingh kashmir


  • Hindu ruler Hari Singh tried to negotiate with India & Pak to have an independent status for his state.
  • Since majority population of the state was Muslim, the Pakistan thought Kashmir belonged‘ to them.
  • On 15th August Harisingh offered standstill agreement with both countries which allowed the free movement of people & goods.
  • Pakistan signed the agreement but India didn’t.
  • Pakistan became impatient & started violating standstill agreement.
  • 24th October Hari Singh demanded military assistance from India.
  • Mountbatten pointed out that under international law India can send its troops only after state signs a formal instrument of accession
  • Thus on 26thOct Maharaja signed the instrument of accession which got ratified in 1954.
  • On 27th Oct. morning nearly 100 planes airlifted men and weapons to Srinagar.
  • Pakistan army left the main valley region but continue to occupy a large chunk of territory of Gilgit, Baltistan region – Pak occupied Kashmir.
Nizaams of Hyderabad


  • Largest princely state of India which was ruled by Nizam
  • Nizam led to tyrannical ways & aspired to set up a Muslim dominion rather than integration with India
  • He wanted an independent status for Hyderabad & thus entered into negotiation of standstill agreement with India
  • Meanwhile, people revolted against Nizam’s rule, particularly the peasants of Telangana due to his worst oppression measures.
  • Nizam retaliated on popular movement by unleashing a para-military force
  • 150,000 soldiers were mobilized by Nizam to fight against the Indian Union
  • They murdered, maimed, raped and looted, targeting particularly the non-Muslims
  • In Sep 1948, Indian army under operation Polo invaded Hyderabad state & overthrew its Nizam, annexing the state merged it into the Indian Union.



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